1 Clear water
2 Turbid water
4 Carex aquatilis
5 Arctophyla fulva
6 Flooded tundra - low center polygons
7 Flooded tundra - non-patterned
8 Wet tundra
9 Sedge/Grass Meadow
10 Tussock tundra
12 Dwarf shrub
13 Low shrub
14 Tall shrub
15 Dunes/Dry sand
16 Sparsely vegetated
17 Barren ground - other
18 Clouds - shadows - bad pixels
20 Mountain shadow
Name of Projection: UTM Zone 4
Name of Spheroid: Clarke 1866
Name of Datum: NAD 27
Map Unit: Meters
Upper Left X 249481.0
Upper Left Y 8011939.0
1.0 Water5.0 Moist Tundra
1.1 Clear5.1 Sedge/Grass Meadow
1.2 Turbid5.2 Tussock Tundra
1.3 Ice5.3 Moss/Peat/Lichen
2.0 Aquatic6.0 Shrub
2.1 Carex aquatilis6.1 Dwarf
2.2 Arctophila fulva6.2 Low
3.0 Flooded Tundra
3.1 Low-centered Polygons7.0 Barren Ground
3.2 Non-patterned7.1 Dunes/Dry Sand
7.2 Sparsely Vegetated
4.0 Wet Tundra7.3 Other
1.1 Clear Water - Fresh or saline waters with little or no particulate matter. Clear water areas are typically deep (greater than one meter). The clear water class may contain small amounts of Arctophila fulva or Carex aquatilis but generally less than 15% surface coverage of these species.
1.2 Turbid Water - Waters that contain particulate matter or shallow (<1m), clear water bodies that are spectrally different from class 1.1. This class typically occurs in shallow lake shelves, deltaic plumes, and rivers and lakes with high sediment loads. The turbid water class may contain small amounts of Arctophila fulva or Carex aquatilis but generally less than 15% surface coverage of these species.
1.3 Ice - May last into late summer on lakes and larger ponds. Ice is present year round in many of the larger lakes.
2.1 Carex aquatilis - Associated with lake or pond shorelines and composed of 50 - 80% clear or turbid water that was greater than 10 centimeters deep. The dominant species was Carex aquatilis. A small percentage of Arctophila fulva, Hippuris vulgaris, Potentilla palustris, and Caltha palustris may be present.
2.2 Arctophila fulva - Associated with lake or pond shorelines and composed of 50 - 80% clear or turbid water that was greater then 10 centimeters deep. The dominant species was Arctophila fulva. A small percentage of Carex aquatilis, Hippuris vulgaris, Potentilla palustris, and Caltha palustris may also be present.
3.1 Flooded Tundra-Low Centered Polygons - Polygon features that retain water throughout the summer. This class is composed of 25 - 50% water; Carex aquatilis is the dominant species in the permanently flooded areas. The dryer ridges of the polygons are composed mostly of Eriophorum russeolum, Eriophorum vaginatum, Sphagnum spp., Salix spp., Betula nana, Arctostaphylos spp., and Ledum palustre.
3.2 Flooded Tundra-Non-pattern - Continuously flooded areas composed of 25-50% water. Carex aquatilis was the dominant species. Other species may include Hippuris vulgaris, Potentilla palustris, and Caltha palustris. Non-pattern is distinguished from low centered polygons by the lack of polygon features and associated shrub species that grow on the dry ridges of low centered polygons.
4.0 Wet Tundra - Associated with areas of super saturated soils and standing water. Wet tundra often floods in early summer and generally drains of excess water during dry periods but remains saturated throughout the summer. It is composed of 10-25% water; Carex aquatilis is the dominant species. Other species may include Eriophorum angustifolium, and other sedges, grasses, and forbs.
5.1 Sedge/Grass Meadow - Dominated by the sedge family. This class commonly consists of a continuous mat of sedges and grasses with a moss and lichen understory. The dominant species were Carex aquatilis, Eriophorum angustifolium, Eriophorum russeolum, Arctagrostis latifolia and Poa arctica. Associated genera include Cassiope spp., Ledum spp., and Vaccinium spp..
5.2 Tussock Tundra - Dominated by the tussock-forming sedge Eriophorum vaginatum. Tussock tundra is common throughout the Arctic Foothills and may be found on well-drained sites in all areas of the NPR-A. Cottongrass tussocks are the dominant landscape elements, while moss is the common understory. Lichen, forbs, and shrubs are also present in varying densities. Associated genera include Salix spp., Betula nana, Ledum palustre, and Carex spp..
5.3 Moss/Lichen - Associated with low lying lakeshores and dry sandy ridges dominated by moss and lichen species. As this type grades into a sedge type, graminoids such as Carex aquatilis may increase in cover, forming an intermediate zone.
6.1 Dwarf Shrub - Associated with ridges and well drained soils and dominated by shrubs less than 30 centimeters in height. Because of the relative dryness of the sites on which this cover type occurs, it is the most species diverse. Major species included Salix spp., Betula nana, Ledum palustre, Dryas spp., Vaccinium spp., Arctostaphylos spp., Eriophorum vaginatum, and Carex aquatilis. This class frequently occurs over a substrate of tussocks.
6.2 Low Shrub - Associated with small streams and rivers, but also occurring on hillsides in the southern portion of the NPR-A. This class is dominated by shrubs between 30 centimeters and 1.5 meters in height. Major species included Salix spp., Betula nana, Alnus crispa, and Ledum palustre.
6.3 Tall Shrub - Found along the Colville River and some of its major tributaries, and dominated by Salix spp. over 1.5 meters in height. This class may also contain significant presence of Alnus crispa over 1.5 meters in height.
7.1 Dunes/Dry Sand - Associated with streams, rivers, lakes and coastal beaches. Dominated by dry sand with less than 10% vegetation. Plant species may include Poa spp., Salix spp., Astragulus spp., Carex spp., Stellaria spp., Arctostaphylos spp., and Puccinellia phryganodes.
7.2 Sparsely Vegetated - Occurred primarily along the coast in areas affected by high or storm tides, in recently drained lake or pond basins, and where there is bare mineral soil that is being re-colonized with vegetation. Dominated by non-vegetated material with 10-30% vegetation. The vegetation in these areas may include rare plants but some of the more commonly found species included Stellaria spp., Poa spp., Salix spp., Astragulus spp., Carex spp., Stellaria spp., Arctostaphylos spp., and Puccinellia phryganodes.
7.3 Barren Ground/Other - Associated with river and stream gravel bars, mountainous areas and urban areas. Includes less than 10% vegetation. May incorporate dead vegetation associated with salt burn from ocean water.
Classification Decision Rules:
1.0 WATER ( > 80% water)
1.1 Clear Water - (depth > 1 meter)
1.2 Turbid Water - (depth <1 meter)
1.3 Ice - (ice > 60%)
2.0 AQUATIC (>50% water and <80% water and > 10cm in depth)
2.1 Carex aquatilis - (> 15% Carex aquatilis and < 15% Arctophila fulva)
2.2 Arctophila fulva - (>15% Arctophila fulva and < 15% Carex aquatilis)
3.0 FLOODED TUNDRA ( >25% water and <50% water and < 10cm in depth)
3.1 Low Centered Polygons ( > 5% Sedge/Grass)
3.2 Non -pattern ( < 5% sedge/Grass)
4.0 WET TUNDRA ( > 10% and < 25% water)
5.0 MOIST TUNDRA ( <10% water, < 40% shrub, composed mostly of sedges, grasses, rushes and moss/peat/lichen complex)
5.1 Sedge/Grass Meadow - ( > 50% sedge/grass and <40% tussock cotton grass)
5.2 Tussock Tundra - ( > 40% tussock cotton grass)
5.3 Moss/lichen - ( > 50% moss and/or lichen)
6.0 SHRUB (< 5% water and >40% shrub)
6.1 Dwarf - ( < 30cm in height)
6.2 Low - ( > 30cm and < 1.5 m in height)
6.3 Tall – (> 1.5 m in height)
7.0 BARREN GROUND (0-30% vegetated)
7.1 Dunes/dry sand - ( <10% vegetation and > 50% dry sand)
7.2 Sparsely Vegetated - (10-30% vegetated)
7.3 Other - (< 10% vegetation and < 50% dry sand)
The Overall accuracy for the NPR-A was 85% for the seven major classes and 75% for the seventeen minor classes.
Contact Agency: Bureau of Land Management
Contact Personnel: John Payne
Contact Address 222 West 7th Avenue
Alaska State Office
Anchorage, AK 99513
Contact Phone: (907) 271-3431
Ducks Unlimited, 1998a. National Petroleum Reserve - Alaska Earth Cover Classification, Final Report, USDI, Bureau of Land Management, Anchorage, AK.
***** Spatial Reference Information (Beg) *****
Number of Columns: 22374
Number of Rows: 18335
Pixel Resolution (m): 30
Data Type: byte
***** Spatial Reference Information (End) *****